Future material demand for automotive lithium-based batteries
We develop a dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) model, which is a frequently used approach to analyze material stocks and flows47. Our stock-driven MFA model estimates the future material demand for EV batteries as well as EoL materials available for recycling. It consists of an EV layer, a battery layer, and a material layer, and considers key technical and socio-economic parameters in three layers (Supplementary Fig. 1). The EV layer models the future EV stock (fleet) development until 2050 as well as required battery capacity. The EV stock then determines the battery stock, which in turn determines the battery inflows and, considering their lifespan distributions (see Supplementary Method 1), the outflow of EoL batteries (see Supplementary Method 2). The battery layer considers future battery chemistry developments and market shares. The material layer models material compositions of battery chemistries using the BatPaC model48. The fate of EoL batteries is modelled considering three recycling scenarios and a second-use scenario and these determine the material availability for closed-loop recycling. The model layers and parameters are described in the following.
EV fleet scenarios and required battery capacity
Projections for the development of the EV fleet vary, but most studies project a substantial penetration of EVs in the light-duty vehicle (LDV) market in the future (Supplementary Fig. 2). We use two EV fleet development scenarios of the IEA until 2030: the stated policies (STEP) scenario and the sustainable development (SD) scenario3 (and estimate the annual EV stock based on the equivalent IEA 2019 scenarios49, see Supplementary Fig. 21). We then extrapolate the EV fleet penetration until 2050 using a logistic model (see Supplementary Figs. 22)50 based on a target penetration of EVs in the LDV market in 2050 of 25% in the STEP scenario and 50% in the SD scenario (which is in-line with other EV forecasts, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 2). To estimate future EV fleet until 2050, we further assume a linear growth for global LDV stock from 503 million vehicles in 2019 to 3.9 billion vehicles in 2050, which is in-line with projection by Fuel Freedom Foundation51. Global predictions of the future development of BEV and PHEV shares were not available. To estimate future shares of BEVs and PHEVs in the EV stock, we assumed that the global share of BEVs increases in the same way as the US BEV share projected by the US Energy Information Administration52, but starting from the 2030 levels of the STEP and SD scenarios (i.e., from 66% in 2030 to 71% in 2050 in STEP scenario and 70% in 2030 to 75% in 2050 in SD scenario, see Supplementary Fig. 23).
We classify EVs models into three market segments (small, mid-size, and large cars for both BEVs and PHEVs) based on vehicle size classes used in the Fuel Economy Guide by EPA (see Supplementary Table 13)53, and collect global sales of each EV model from the Marklines database54. We use the distribution of cumulative sales until 2019 to represent EV sales market shares among small, mid-size, and large segments (Supplementary Figures 24 and 25). As a result, we obtained 19, 48, and 34% for small, mid-size, and large cars for BEVs, and 23, 45, and 32% for PHEVs. We assume EVs sales market share remain constant; however, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to obtain the upper and lower bounds for material requirements if all vehicles were large BEV or small PHEV (see sensitivity analysis).
We collect range, fuel economy, and motor power of each EV model from Advanced Fuels Data Center of US DOE55, and calculate sales-weighted average range, fuel economy, and motor power for three market segments for both BEVs and PHEVs (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2). By assuming 85% available battery capacity for driving EVs based on BatPaC model48, we obtain 33, 66, and 100 kWh for small, mid-size, and large BEVs (see Supplementary Table 2 for PHEV).
Passenger car lifespans have been found to vary from 9 to 23 years among countries with average lifespan of around 15 years56. EV lifespan depends on consumer behavior, technical lifespan (see next section), and other factors. Here we use a Weibull distribution57 to model the EV lifespan assuming the minimum, maximum, and most likely lifespans of EVs to be 1, 20, and 15 years, respectively (see Supplementary Fig. 6). We do not consider battery remanufacture and reuse from one EV to another EV due to performance degradation, technical compatibility, and consumer acceptance.
Battery chemistry scenarios and market shares
Although various EV battery chemistries have been developed for EVs to decrease cost and improve performance, current major battery roadmaps in US58, EU25, Germany59, and China60 focus on cathode material development considering high-energy NCM (transition to low cobalt and high nickel content) and NCA based chemistries to be the likely next generation of LIBs for EVs in next decade, as well as anode material development considering adding Si to graphite anode. This is also reflected in commercial activities by battery producers (e.g., LG Chem or CATL)61 and market share projections until 2030 by Avicenne Energy17, which we use in this study. We assume that NCM batteries continue to decrease cobalt content and increase nickel content after 2030 and compile the NCX scenario (where X represents either Al or Mn) until 2050 (including eight chemistries, see Supplementary Table 14). In the NCX scenario, we assume that NCM955 (90% nickel, 5% cobalt, 5% manganese) are introduced in 203018, and gradually replace other previous chemistries proportionally to reach a market share of one third by 2050 (i.e., market shares of NCM111, NCM523, NCM622, NCM622-Graphite (Si), NCM811-Graphite (Si), NCA, and LFP batteries are assumed to decrease proportionally after 2030, see Fig. 2b).
Future battery chemistry developments after 2030 are uncertain, but conceivable battery chemistries, in addition to NCM and NCA batteries, include already existing LFP batteries21,62, as well high-capacity Li-metal solid state batteries, such as Li-S and Li-Air23,25. We therefore include two additional what-if scenarios next to the NCX scenario: an LFP scenario and a Li-S/Air scenario. In the LFP scenario, the market share of LFP chemistry is assumed to increase linearly from around 30% in 2019 to 60% by 2030 and remain at this level until 2050 (i.e., other batteries lost market share proportionally compared to the NCX scenario, see Fig. 2b). In the Li-S/Li-Air scenario, we assume Li-S and Li-Air batteries to be commercially available in 2030 based on commercial plans of Li-S by OXIS Energy63 and Li-Air by Samsung Electronics64 and then they obtain linearly increasing market share to 30% each (totally 60%) by 2040, and maintain this share until 2050 (NCA and NCM batteries supply the rest of the market by historical proportions, see Fig. 2b).
The real-world lifespan of batteries is influenced by additional factors not modelled here, such as ambient temperature, depth and rates of charge and discharge, driving cycles65. We use the technical lifespan of batteries. Before 2020, we assume that batteries are likely to last 8 years (based on the battery warranty of EV manufactures)66, which is shorter than EV lifespan (Supplementary Table 15). We assume a 50% battery replacement rate for EVs before 2020 (i.e., one EV requires 1.5 battery packs on average). Battery research agendas in the US58, EU25, and China60 include targets to increase the lifespan of batteries, which is why we assume that after 2020 batteries will have the same lifespan distributions as EVs and no replacement of batteries is required (Supplementary Table 16). Note that we assume higher lifespans for LFP batteries (20 years on average) (Supplementary Fig. 6), which leads to a higher second-use potential than for the other battery types.
Battery material compositions
The battery material compositions are calculated by using the BatPaC model version 3.148 as a function of the 2 EV types (BEVs or PHEVs), the 3 EV market segments (small, mid-size, and large cars), and the 8 battery chemistries (LFP, NCA, NCM11, NCM523, NCM622, NCM622-Graphite (Si), NCM811-Graphite (Si), NCM955-Graphite (Si)), which yields 48 unique battery chemistries. The input parameters include the EV range, fuel economy, and motor power, which determine the required capacity of each EV type and market segment (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2), and battery chemistry and other parameters (like the design of battery modules and cell components) for which we use the default values in the BatPaC model. To calculate the material compositions of battery chemistries that do not exist in BatPaC (i.e., NCM523, NCM622-Graphite (Si), NCM811-Graphite (Si), NCM955-Graphite (Si)), we use the closest matching battery chemistry in BatPaC as a basis and then adapt technical parameters, such as Ni, Co, Mn contents in the positive active material and Si and graphite contents in the negative active material, by stoichiometry, as well as active material capacities (Supplementary Tables 17–19) and open circuit voltage (see Supplementary Table 20 and Note 1).
For Li-S and Li-Air chemistries, we performed a literature review on the specific energy and material compositions of Li-S and Li-Air cells (Supplementary Tables 21 and 22), and then scale these linearly to meet required battery capacities for each EV type and market segment (Supplementary Note 2). The pack components of Li-S and Li-Air are assumed to be based on the pack configurations of NCA chemistry (i.e., the same weight ratio between cell components and pack components). Supplementary Table 23 shows the material compositions used in this paper.
Recycling of EoL batteries provides a secondary supply of materials. Here we assume 100% collection rates and explore the effects of recycling efficiencies of three recycling scenarios (see Supplementary Table 24) on primary material demand, including recovered quantities and some discussion of recycled material qualities. The primary material demand when there is no collection and recycling of EoL batteries is captured by the “without recycling” scenario (Fig. 4). Currently commercialized recycling technologies include pyrometallurgical (pyro) and hydrometallurgical (hydro) recycling. Direct recycling is under development for cathode-to-cathode recycling. For NCX and LFP batteries, pyro, hydro, and direct recycling are assumed in the three recycling scenarios, respectively, while mechanical recycling is assumed for Li-S and Li-Air batteries in all three scenarios. Recycling technologies differ in recycled materials, chemical forms, recovery efficiencies, and economic prospects46,67,68 (Fig. 5).
The pyrometallurgical recycling scenario we consider is in fact a hybrid pyro and hydro process. After feeding disassembled battery modules and/or cells to the smelter, graphite is burnt off, aluminum and lithium end up in the slag, and nickel, cobalt, and copper end up in a matte. After leaching of the matte, copper ion is recovered as copper metal through electrowinning, while the nickel and cobalt ions are recovered as battery-grade nickel and cobalt compounds through solvent extraction or precipitation. The lithium in the slag can be refined to produce battery-grade lithium compounds, but it is only economical when lithium price is high and recycling at scale. Technically, aluminum in the slag can also be recovered, but it is not economical and not considered by pyro recycling companies (the slag may be used, e.g., as aggregate in construction material).
The hydrometallurgical recycling scenario starts with shredding disassembled modules and/or cells. The shred then goes through a series of physical separation steps to sort the materials into cathode powder, anode powder, and mixed aluminum and copper scraps. Depending on the scrap metal prices, the mixed aluminum and copper scraps may be further sorted into aluminum scraps and copper scraps. The copper scraps can be incorporated back into the battery supply chain with minimal processing (i.e., remelting). The closed-loop recycling of aluminum is more challenging as the recovered aluminum scraps are a mixture of different aluminum alloys (e.g., from current collector and casing) and Al is, therefore, typically downcycled. Closed-loop recycling of aluminum would require separating the aluminum alloy before or during the recycling process, which may or may not be economical69. The cathode powder is subsequently leached with acid, where nickel, cobalt, and manganese leach out as ions, and recovered as battery-grade compounds after solvent extraction and precipitation. Lithium ends up in the solid waste, which can also be used as construction materials. Similar to pyro recycling, lithium in the solid waste can be recovered as battery-grade compound, but the economic viability depends on the lithium price. The anode powder recovered through hydro, which can be a blend of graphite and silicon, is not battery-grade. Although they can be refined to battery-grade, at present the economic viability is unclear.
The direct recycling scenario is the same as hydro except for cathode powder recycling. In the direct process, the cathode powder is recovered and then regenerated by reacting with a lithium source (relithiation and upgrading). Lithium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese are therefore recovered as one battery-grade compound. Since lithium refining is not needed here as with pyro and hydro, lithium recovery in direct process is economical at least from a lab-scale perspective.
The material recovery efficiencies for pyro, hydro, and direct are taken from the EverBatt67 model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (Supplementary Table 24). As for mechanical recycling of Li-S and Li-Air batteries, we assume that only metallic lithium is recovered from the process. The material recovery efficiency of metallic lithium is assumed to be 90%, and the recovery is considered economical due to the relatively simple process and high value of recovered lithium metal.
EoL EV batteries may experience a second-use for less demanding applications (non-automotive), such as stationary energy storage, as they often have remaining capacities of around 70–80% of their original capacity70,71. Technical barriers exist (e.g., the performance of repurposed batteries) and economic uncertainty (the cost of repurposing including disassembly, testing, and repackaging) that depend on the battery chemistry, state-of-health, and the intended second-use application72,73. Here we distinguish the second-use rates of LFP and other chemistries due to the long cycle life20 and the reduced chance of cascading failure of LFP74. LFP batteries are assumed to have a 100% second-use rate. For the rest of the battery chemistries, we assume a 50% second-use rate before 2020, rising to 75% during 2020–2050 because of improved technical lifespan of EV batteries (see Supplementary Table 6). The second-use applications vary from home use to electricity system integration, resulting in the second-use lifespan varying from 6 to 30 years75. We assume a typical 10-year second-use lifespan71 to explore the effects of second-use on the availability of materials for recycling. Note here the second-use assumes 100% reuse of battery modules, while pack components enter recycling directly.
The effect of important factors such as EV fleet size and battery chemistry are investigated in dedicated scenarios. In addition, we perform sensitivity analysis for (a) battery lifespan, (b) required battery capacity per vehicle, (c) the market penetration of Co- and Ni-free battery chemistries, and (d) the future specific energies of Li-S and Li-Air chemistries (for which conservative numbers were assumed).
Battery lifespan has an important effect on the number of batteries required for EVs. We perform a sensitivity analysis of the effect of lower battery lifespans on battery material demand by assuming that also after 2020 one EV needs 1.5 batteries on average (results in Supplementary Fig. 20).
Future market shares of BEVs and PHEVs and EV battery capacity are also key for determining the quantity of required materials. While battery capacity is driven by many factors like EV range, fuel economy, and powertrain configurations, we perform a sensitivity analysis on two extreme situations, 100% BEV with 110 kWh capacity (large SUVs such as Tesla Model S Long Range Plus37, see Supplementary Table 25 for material compositions) and 100% PHEV with 10 kWh capacity (see Supplementary Table 26 for material compositions), to explore the bounds of future material demand (see associated cumulative material requirements in Fig. 4 and Supplementary Fig. 11, see annual results in Supplementary Fig. 10).
Similarly, we also explore the effects of 100% market share of LFP in the LFP scenario and 100% market share of Li-S and Li-Air in the Li-S/Air scenario (see Supplementary Fig. 17 and associated material requirements in Supplementary Figs. 18 and 19, respectively).
The improvement of material performance of battery chemistry, especially specific energy (stored energy per weight), may reduce material demand dramatically. Here we chose Li-S and Li-Air chemistries in the Li-S/Air scenario to perform a sensitivity analysis of the potential specific energy improvement from 400 Wh/kg to 600 Wh/kg for Li-S and from 500 Wh/kg to 1000 Wh/kg for Li-Air (values based on review of industrial and lab-scale achievements, see Supplementary Table 11 for material compositions and associated material requirements in Supplementary Fig. 16).
Recycled Lithium-Ion Batteries Can Perform Better Than New Ones
Lithium-ion batteries are at the heart of nearly every electric vehicle, laptop and smartphone, and they are essential to storing renewable energy in the face of the climate emergency. But all of the world’s current mining operations cannot extract enough lithium and other key minerals to meet skyrocketing demand for these batteries. Establishing new mines is an expensive, years-long effort. And mining also creates a host of environmental headaches—such as depleting local water resources and polluting the nearby region with runoff debris—that have led to protests against new mines.
All of this means the ability to recycle existing batteries is crucial for sustainably shifting the global energy system. But recycling lithium-ion batteries has only recently made commercial inroads. Battery manufacturers have hesitated over concerns that recycled products may be lower in quality than those built from newly mined minerals, potentially leading to shorter battery life or damage to the battery’s innards. Consequences could be serious, particularly in an application such as an electric vehicle.
But new research published in Joule has hit upon what experts describe as a more elegant recycling method that refurbishes the cathode—the carefully crafted crystal that is the lithium-ion battery’s most expensive component and key to supplying the proper voltage. The researchers found that batteries they made with their new cathode-recycling technique perform just as well as those with a cathode made from scratch. In fact, batteries with the recycled cathode both last longer and charge faster. The team’s approach and successful demonstration are “very unique and very impressive,” says Kang Xu, an electrochemist at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, who was not involved in the study.
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A Joke No More
Yan Wang, a materials science professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and co-author of the new study, started researching battery recycling 11 years ago. At the time, he says, “some people joked with me, ‘There’s not enough batteries for you to recycle.’” That joke is not aging well. The Department of Energy estimates the battery market may grow 10-fold over the next decade. To ease the market’s growing pains, “recycling of lithium-ion batteries—getting that material back into the supply chain—is critical,” says Dave Howell, director of the DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Office. The DOE funded the new research as part of its massive effort to spur large-scale battery recycling innovations in the U.S.
When a lithium-ion battery is providing power, a cluster of lithium ions moves from one crystalline “cage” (the anode) to another (the cathode). The most common methods currently used to recycle these batteries involve dismantling and shredding the whole battery, then either melting it all down or dissolving it in acid. The result is a black mass—with a texture can that can vary from powder to goo—from which chemical elements or simple compounds can be salvaged. Those recovered products can then go through the same commercial manufacturing process that newly mined elements do to make cathodes.Cross sections of the recycled cathode particles (A) and particles made from new materials (B), taken with an X-ray microscope. The scale bar is 10 micrometers in (A) and 5 micrometers in (B). Credit: “Recycled cathode materials enabled superior performance for lithium-ion batteries,” by Xiaotu Ma, et al., in Joule, Vol. 5, No. 11; Nov. 17, 2021 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2021.09.005
Wang and his colleagues use a very similar process—but instead of completely breaking the battery down to its constituent chemical elements, their technique keeps some of the old cathode’s crucial composition intact. After they shred the battery, they physically remove the less expensive bits (such as the electronic circuits and steel battery casing) and recycle them separately. What is left is mainly the cathode material; they dissolve this in acid and then remove impurities. Next, they carefully add just a touch of fresh elements that compose the cathode, such as nickel and cobalt, to ensure the ratio of ingredients is just right—another distinction from common recycling methods. After a few more steps, the result is an effectively refreshed cathode powder, composed of tiny crystalline particles that can be stuck onto a metal strip and placed in a “new” battery.
Because a cathode is crafted from a precise mix of precious minerals to achieve the battery’s specific voltage, slight changes to its structure or composition can compromise its performance. Thus, much of the cathode powder’s value is “in how you’ve engineered the particles [of powder] in the first place,” says Emma Kendrick, a professor of energy materials at England’s University of Birmingham, who was not involved in the new study. That value is lost if the entire battery is simply melted down or dissolved in one fell swoop, as in current recycling methods.
More Pores, Faster Charge
Wang and his colleagues compared the particles in their recycled cathode powder with those in commercially manufactured cathode powder (largely made from newly mined minerals). They found that the recycled powder particles were more porous, with particularly large voids in the center of each one. These characteristics provide room for the cathode crystal to swell slightly as lithium ions squeeze into it, and this wiggle room keeps the crystal from cracking as easily as cathodes built from scratch. Such cracking is a major cause of battery degradation over time.
More pores also mean more exposed surface area, where the chemical reactions that are necessary to charge the battery can happen—and this is why Wang’s recycled batteries charge faster than their commercially manufactured counterparts. A future ambition could be to design all cathodes to have this superior structure rather than just those made from recycled stuff, Wang says.
The latest findings demonstrate that “the cathode they can make is as good as—or even better than—the commercial material that we’ve been importing,” says Linda Gaines, a transportation analyst at Argonne National Laboratory and chief scientist at ReCell Center, an organization that studies and promotes battery recycling. (Gaines was not involved in the new study.) Such imports largely come from China, which leads the world in battery recycling. But this situation means materials must be shuffled across the globe to be recycled, increasing the carbon footprint of recycled batteries and diminishing their allure as a more sustainable path. The approach developed by Wang’s team cuts out a significant chunk of international trade and transportation requirements, carving a potential path for other countries to bolster domestic battery recycling. The process is currently being scaled up by Ascend Elements, formerly Battery Resourcers, a recycling company Wang co-founded.
Lithium-Ion Batteries—The Crux of Electric Vehicles with Opportunities and Challenges
To better comprehend lithium-ion mobility, a recently developed approach for three-dimensional imaging of the electrode structure was used to accomplish this task. More lithium ions are charged and discharged in this battery than in other types. Because they are so little, they can readily be separated from the electrode. As a result of Hitachi’s research, a method for attaching silicon materials together has been developed. The intended outcome was achieved by using an electrode to suppress the separation. Carbon-based materials have a comparable service life. Anodes made of standard materials are subject to corrosion. Electrolytes decompose when a high voltage is applied, resulting in a reduced lifespan. A simple solution was devised to cover the cathode with a piece of aluminum foil. These tactics can help them achieve their aims. As the lifespan of the batteries is enhanced, the range of electric vehicles becomes extremely vast. This paper presents the challenges and opportunities associated with lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles in the form of a brief review.
In a regular Li-ion cell, the negative electrode is constructed of carbon (C), whereas the positive electrode is often built of metal oxide (MnO) (MO). Lithium ions can be stored on both the anode and the cathode. The electrolyte between these electrodes is traversed by 24 lithium ions, which store and release energy. There is a problem with typical lithium salts when they are utilized in organic solvents as an electrolyte (standard), although the anode’s life is diminished when a high voltage is applied to the anode materials. An entirely new lithium-ion battery is being created for electric vehicles with three times the thickness of typical batteries to address this issue. Increasing the volume ratio of active electrodes, for example by increasing the thickness of electrode materials, is an effective technique for enabling the growth of lithium-ion batteries with thicker electrode layers. LIPO batteries benefit from a high electrode-to-current ratio (E/I ratio). A smaller cell with a lower collector-to-volume ratio is more energy efficient. Production costs can be decreased by eliminating the need for additional cutting and staple steps, and this battery has been used in its products at Hitachi Ltd. (TSE: 6501) in Tokyo, Japan. Electric vehicles can now drive twice as far as they could with the advances in this new technology. Regular electrodes now double the thickness provide a greater flexibility for the batteries to hold more lithium-ions [ 5 ].
Li-ion batteries include four essential components: the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator. A Li-ion battery is powered by a chemical process involving lithium. The market for Li-ion batteries is booming, as they are the most effective way to power a wide range of electric vehicles. In recent years, there has been a massive investment in technology development. As a result, battery makers as well as original equipment manufacturers have started revealing their plans to electrify their vehicles [ 2 3 ]. Electric car sales bolstered the industry in 2020, despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. For electric vehicles using Li-ion battery cells, the market is anticipated to be worth over70 billion by 2026 based on a comprehensive analysis of the drivers and restraints in the industry [ 4 ]. A schematic of the evolution of lithium-ion battery technology is shown in Figure 1
Since their introduction in 1991, Sony’s Li-ion batteries have been widely used in automobiles, smartphones, and laptop computers [ 1 ]. Compared to standard lead–acid batteries, they are three times more efficient and last up to 20 years. If a vehicle is equipped with a lithium-ion battery, it provides an advantage of extra capacity for storing a lot of power and is not cumbersome in facilitating the vehicle to move with less energy. In general, global sales of electric vehicles in 2020 exceeded expectations and are constantly on the rise. In addition, Europe announced an extra 200 GWh of projected capacity in 2020, a number that will rapidly rise in 2021 up to 600 GWh for electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries. There has been a surge in the electric car market’s pace in recent years and the demand has resulted in competition among several manufacturers of EVs such as Tesla, Volkswagen, GM, SK Innovation, and LG Chem. Thus, understanding Li-ion batteries, as well as multiple design and implementation trends, is even more important.
As several governments have already committed to reducing the use of gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles by 2030, it is expected that electric vehicles (or EVs) will replace a large portion of today’s fleet. Several industries have planned towards achieving the goal and one such instance is the electric battery plant near Nissan’s Sunderland plant in Northeast England, where the automaker has committed to increasing production of electric vehicles. In Ellesmere port facility, Stellantis (the owner of Vauxhall) has announced an investment of £100,000 million (about $ 139 million). Most electric vehicles today use lithium-ion batteries, but they have several drawbacks. The scientists and engineers are working on several solutions to address these issues, which could expedite the transition to more effective Li-ion battery use in electric vehicles, as well.
Batteries for non-car vehicle types, such as heavy-duty trucks, buses, and logistical vehicles, are examined in Europe and the United States. For example, product form factors, chemical composition, and performance are all considered while comparing turnkey items. There will be an increasing need for better and more environmentally friendly batteries as Li-ion batteries reach the limits of their performance and concerns about their availability and the environment are raised. In the future, the utilization of lithium metal anodes, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and redox flow batteries will be witnessed more [ 11 ]. Solid electrolytes, high-Ni cathodes, silicon and lithium metal anodes, and a range of cell design components are a few examples. Battery electric vehicles, particularly those powered by lithium-ion batteries, are expected to keep Li-ion at the top of the battery market for years to come. In the field of lithium-ion batteries, silicon anodes and lithium metal anodes are two of the most exciting material developments (the latter of which is frequently but not always used in conjunction with solid electrolytes). In addition to their potential to improve energy density, these anode materials are being investigated for their potential to increase rate capability, safety, and even cost. In the past, silicon and lithium metal were both hampered by the fact that their practical implementation has been delayed and constrained [ 12 ]. To improve performance, Li-S batteries use a conversion-type sulfur cathode instead of the intercalation cathodes found in Li-ion batteries. This results in a longer lifespan for the battery. The market opportunities for Li-ion batteries have been expanding. By 2024, the market for Lithium-ion batteries is expected to grow to a value of USD 90.01 billion. Over the projection period of 2020–2026, the market is anticipated to develop at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 20% due to the booming electric car industry, strong consumer electronics demand, the transition to smart electronics, rising shipments of smart wearables, and falling lithium-ion battery prices. The need for energy in the form of solar, wind, fossil fuels, etc., has caused the current society significant concern. Batteries play a crucial part in illustrating the successful use of renewable energy in this setting, where the demand for efficient storage devices is likely to have existed for a long time. The global lithium-ion battery market size was estimated at USD 58.61 billion in 2021 and is expected to surpass around USD 278.27 billion by 2030 with a registered CAGR of 18.9% from 2022 to 2030, as shown in Figure 2
Gains in energy density at the pack level are just as significant as those at the cell level. It is becoming increasingly common for battery packs to use temperature management techniques, modular construction methods, and lightweight materials in their construction. Considering the safety and critical aspects of Li-ion batteries, the temperature must be regulated. Effective heat management is becoming increasingly critical considering previous fires and the Chinese government’s desire to improve the safety of battery pack operation, especially in public transportation. All the cooling methods, whether they use air, liquid, or refrigerant, have pros and cons.
Commonly used automotive units include watt-hours (Wh) and kilowatt-hours (kWh) (kWh). Batteries like these are used in everything from cell phones to electric vehicles. High storage density is part of lithium-ion technology’s success. However, even though solid-state battery technology is in its infancy, lithium-ion technology now provides the best potential balance of energy storage capacity, volume, and mass when it comes to use in electric vehicles. As a component of the circular economy concept, it has a high voltage, is simple to recharge, and has a long lifespan, all of which allow for a variety of complimentary use scenarios throughout its life cycle. Different facets of Li-ion cell technology are ever-changing cell form factors and chemistries [ 7 ]. Higher nickel-layered oxides such as nickel manganese cobalt, such as NMC 622 through NMC 811-based batteries for BEVs, are obviously on the rise, although these higher nickel cathodes are not suited for all applications. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) has become popular in low-cost cars, whereas Chinese e-buses rely only on LFP for their power supply. Car segment-specific cathode materials and OEM/pack manufacturer strategies are specifically given importance. Supply and demand for cathodes are anticipated till 2031. Li-ion may have to contend with less-capable technologies that are still in their infancy as competition in the future. Batteries for electric vehicles can be improved by developing and improving modern Li-ion cells and chemistry. With a specific focus on solid-state/Li-metal and silicon anode cell technologies for usage in electric vehicles, these breakthroughs have always been vital [ 8 10 ].
Currently, rules and subsidies are supporting the sale of electric vehicles, and this trend is expected to continue presently in the United States as well. Li-ion battery advances are needed for a variety of vehicle types if mass-market adoption is to be achieved through consumer-driven innovation. Electric vehicles including cars, buses, lorries, and boats can benefit from Li-ion chemistry and battery design alternatives due to their wide range of performance needs [ 6 ]. To fully appreciate this, it is necessary to examine the possibilities for electric vehicles like these.
Tesla paid235.0 million for battery and ultracapacitor maker Maxwell Technologies, situated in San Diego, California. Tesla is a clean-energy and electric vehicle manufacturer. Tesla will be able to create its own high-density and long-lasting battery cell system using Maxwell’s dry cathode technology, which the two firms collaboratively developed. By using dry battery electrodes, the energy capacity of batteries can be increased by 50%, resulting in a two-fold increase in battery life. Australia, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Brazil, China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States are major players in the electric car battery market [ 21 ].
The average electric vehicle’s range is expected to rise from 73 to 400 miles between 2011 and 2021, according to the US Department of Energy. Furthermore, the cost of electronic batteries is decreasing because of technological advances. According to Bloomberg, a kilowatt-hour of battery electricity, which in 2010 cost more than1100 USD, is currently merely156 USD and is predicted to be about100 USD by the end of 2023. Because of technological improvements in electronic batteries and their accompanying technologies, electronic batteries have become increasingly popular. For environmental reasons, countries prohibit the extraction of lithium cobalt, a basic material used in electric vehicle batteries. Lithium mining requires 50,000 gallons of water to extract one metric ton of the metal. Over half of Chile’s Salar de Atacama region was depleted by lithium mining, and hazardous leaks resulted in severe water shortages across the country and South America. Governments will implement stronger rules on mining to protect the environment, which will lead to an increase in production costs. Electric car batteries are predicted to have a negative impact on the market for electric vehicle batteries soon because of their environmental impact. Demand for grid-connected charging is predicted to rise soon on the market for electric vehicle batteries. Batteries, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) all interface with the power grid via bi-directional charging systems, allowing them all to send and receive electricity during peak hours while also boosting their charging rate. A vehicle-to-grid (V2G) pilot project began in Turin, Italy in January of 2021 by FCA, Engie EPS, and Terna to test the viability of integrating the company’s vehicles into the grid. The European Union is providing financial support for this endeavor. As a result, the electric battery market is expected to be dominated by vehicle-to-grid technologies in the next years [ 18 20 ].
Since COVID-19, which had previously resulted in strict containment measures such as the stoppage of economic activity and social separation, firms have been returning to work and adjusting to the new normal. The market is predicted to increase at a compound annual growth rate of 6.9% to reach33.26 billion by 2026. The sale of battery packs for electric cars dominates this sector. Electric vehicles use rechargeable batteries to power their electric motors. This battery series is a proponent of clean energy because it does not emit any dangerous gases when it is working. Electric vehicles routinely make use of a variety of battery kinds. In addition to lithium-ion and lead–acid batteries, nickel metal hydride and sodium ion are also good examples. In electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries are safer and more stable than liquid lithium-ion batteries because of their higher energy density. Plug-in hybrid and battery-powered electric vehicles are two options that are available for personal and commercial use [ 17 ]. In 2021, Asia Pacific electric vehicle battery sales were expected to hit a record high. European battery sales in 2017 topped2 billion, making it the second largest market worldwide. Many countries and regions in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa are included in this investigation. This will lead to an increase in the demand for electric vehicle batteries over the next few years. This is a good indicator for business. Battery improvements and faster charging times have made electric vehicles more accessible to the public.
There are a number of leading electric vehicle battery manufacturers, including Panasonic, Automotive Energy Supply Corporation, Robert Bosch, SAMSUNG SDI, Beijing Pride New Energy Battery Technology Co. Ltd., BYD Co. Ltd., Daimler, Mitsubishi, and Tianneng Power International Co., Ltd. Other notable electric vehicle battery manufacturers include Tesla, Nissan, and Toyota. The market for electric car batteries is expected to expand from $ 23.74 billion in 2021 to $ 25.43 billion in 2022, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.1%.
China’s EV market is three times greater than the markets in Europe and the United States, on a per capita basis. A total of 385,000 electric vehicles (EVs) were sold in Europe in 2018 (320,000 of these were sold in EU countries). The European Union’s light passenger vehicle sales penetration rate climbed from 1% in 2015 to 1.8% in 2018. Despite Europe’s leading position in electric vehicle sales, the continent’s 2018 growth rate (31%) is lower than the worldwide average. Norwegian new car sales in 2018 accounted for 46% of the country’s total new vehicle sales, making it the world’s leading EV market. Germany, the United Kingdom, and France all sell more merchandise than Norway. A growing number of analysts believe that the European electric vehicle market will thrive in the future due to the promises of domestic automakers and more stringent fuel economy standards [ 16 ]. Between 2015 and 2018, sales of light electric vehicles in the United States increased from 115,000 to 361,000 units (33% CAGR). From a 2015 penetrating rate of 0.7%, its 2018 penetrating rate was 2.1%. US EV sales nearly doubled to 361,000 units in 2018, which was higher than the global market’s growth pace of 160,000 units per year. In 2018, 134,000 BEVs were sold, mostly due to the success of Tesla’s Model 3, which had a substantial backlog of orders and was eligible for EV tax credits.
More than half (60%) of all electric vehicle (EV) sales in 2018 occurred in China. The number of light electric vehicles sold in China increased from 220,000 in 2015 to 1,120,000 in 2018 (48% CAGR). Light passenger vehicle sales increased from 0.9% to 3.9% in the same time frame. More than 90% of China’s extremely small “city” automobiles were electric. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs) make up nearly a third of China’s electric automobiles. Small BEVs can be bought for the same price as an ICE with the help of government incentives.
The worldwide EV industry is dominated by passenger vehicles, with EVs making up about 1% of the global passenger vehicle market. There were more than 5 million electric vehicles on the road worldwide in 2018, up from just 2 million in 2017. More than half of the world’s electric vehicle fleet (2.3 million vehicles) was located in China in 2018, up from 37% in 2017. While Europe had 24% (1.2 million), the United States had 22% (1.1 million). Electric vehicles can be used for commercial purposes, with buses now dominating the global industry. China has 421,000 electric buses (accounting for around 18% of its total bus fleet), Europe has 2250, and the United States has 300. Most commercial vehicles, including trucks, remain ICE vehicles [ 13 14 ]. There were around 2000 medium-sized trucks in the fleet of electric vehicles for freight transport in 2018 (250,000). There is an increasing demand for transportation services, including taxis, ridesharing, and car-sharing fleets; EVs account for 1.8% of the shared mobility fleet. With 10 billion rides in 2018, China is the largest ride-hailing market, whereas the United States had just over 3 billion rides. Automobile manufacturers and mobility service providers in China have formed joint ventures (such as Didi Chuxing) or other forms of cooperation (such as BAIC Motor, SAIC Motor, GAC Motor, and Geely Auto). Profits have been difficult to come by in this market area. As a result of Daimler’s decision to withdraw its Smart mini-cars from China, it has formed a joint venture with Geely to take advantage of the premium ride-hailing market [ 15 ].
The cathodes used in the most successful Li-ion systems are constructed of nickel, manganese, or cobalt. Depending on the application, a variety of systems can be utilized as power cells or energy cells, respectively. It has been discovered that using this optimization, the NMC in an 18,650 cell may operate at 4 to 5 A in output voltage, depending on the cell. It is possible to always discharge a battery with a capacity of 2000 mAh at a rate of 20 A. However, while it is possible to boost the anode’s capacity up to 4000 mAh, this comes at the sacrifice of loading capacity and cycle life. During the charging and discharging processes, the anode’s shape changes, resulting in the cell being unstable. Adding silicon to graphite can help to increase the stability of a cell. A significant component of NMC’s success has been the use of nickel and manganese. Sodium and chloride, which are the two most essential elements of table salt, are combined to form seasoning salt and food preservative, respectively. Manganese has a low specific energy because of its spinel structure, which lowers internal resistance and results in a low specific energy. Nickel’s disadvantage is that it has high specific energy. The total power of the metals has been boosted. When it comes to electric vehicles, NMC batteries are the finest available option. Cathode 1-1-1 is the most prevalent type of cathode, which has equal amounts of nickel, manganese, and copper. Because of the decreased cobalt percentage, this results in a more unique mix, while also lowering the cost of raw materials. The NCM alloy, on the other hand, is composed of 5 nickel, 3 cobalt, and 2 manganese components (5-3-2). Different designs can be created by varying the amount of cathode material used. New electrolytes and additives have been developed, allowing cells to be charged up to 4.4 V per cell and at higher voltages. Because NMC-blended Li-ion is both cost-efficient and effective, it is becoming increasingly popular among battery users. A variety of automotive and energy storage system (EES) applications requiring frequent cycling can benefit from the use of nickel, manganese, and cobalt, which are three active materials that are easily mixed. Some of the properties of lithium-ion batteries are presented in Table 1 along with their prices.
It is a combination of nickel and manganese. Lithium-ion batteries and cobalt oxide batteries, both of which go by the name of “NMC batteries,” use many of the same raw components. A nickel, manganese, and cobalt cathode is one option. The power density of NMC batteries is higher than that of other lithium-ion battery types. Even if they could, neither of these things would be possible. In power tools and car powertrains, this battery type is the most used. There are three key ingredients in cathode mixture: nickel, manganese, and cobalt. Cobalt is more expensive than other lithium-ion battery options. This lowers the cost of raw materials. The price of lithium-ion batteries could fall even more if battery producers opt to convert to a chemistry with a larger percentage of nickel and so require less cobalt. This battery type is often utilized in electric vehicles because of its low self-heating rate.
Lithium titanate, or Li-titanate, is a fast-growing battery that can be used in a variety of ways. The lithium titanate battery may be recharged in as little as a few minutes due to its advanced nanotechnology. Li-titanate batteries, which are already used in autos and bicycles, could be employed in electric buses. Batteries with higher intrinsic voltage or energy density are available, but there are several downsides to this lithium-ion battery. The increased density of lithium titanate batteries compared to non-lithium-ion batteries is an advantage. With the utilization of these batteries, smart grids and the storage of renewable energy could both benefit. According to Battery Space, these batteries could also be employed as system-critical backups in power systems.
In electric vehicles and grid storage, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA) batteries are being used. NCA batteries have a lot of potential in the automotive industry, despite their lack of use in consumer devices. Despite their better energy density and longer lifespan, NCA batteries are less secure and more expensive than other types of lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the safety of drivers, NCA batteries must be supported by monitoring devices. As the number of electric vehicles increases, so will the need for NCA batteries, due to their extensive application in those vehicles.
These batteries are also known as “li-phosphate batteries” because of the cathode’s phosphorus content. As a result of their low resistance, they are more dependable. They can be recharged for an extended amount of time without deterioration due to batteries with long lifecycles. Because of their long battery life, lithium phosphate batteries are a good bargain in many applications. Lithium phosphate batteries are less powerful than other batteries due to their lower voltage. This type of battery is commonly used in electric bikes and other gadgets that require long-lasting batteries and high levels of security. These batteries are also used in electric automobiles, which are becoming increasingly popular.
Lithium manganese oxide is stored in lithium manganese oxide batteries, which are usually called manganese spinel batteries or Li-manganese cells (or lithium-ion manganese). The original battery technology was initially created in the 1980s and published in 1983 for the first time in the Materials Research Bulletin. Moli Energy’s first commercial lithium-ion cells, produced in 1996, used lithium manganese oxide as the cathode material. Lithium-ion manganese oxide batteries have higher thermal stability than other types of lithium-ion batteries, making them safer to use. Power tools, electric motorbikes, and a wide range of other electronic devices are all examples of devices that use them. Lithium manganese oxide batteries are employed in a variety of various applications, including laptop computers and electric vehicles.
Lithium cobalt oxide batteries and lithium-ion cobalt batteries are other names for these batteries. These batteries are made from lithium carbonate and cobalt, which are both heavy metals. Because of their high specific energy density, it is not commonplace to see these batteries in mobile devices such as cellphones, laptops, and digital cameras (SED). The anode is made of cobalt oxide, and the cathode is made of graphite, with lithium ions passing between them when the electrodes conduct electricity. It is not the most energy-efficient option in terms of battery life. In addition, we would like to point out that these batteries are not as safe as other types of batteries. Although this is the case, they continue to be a popular choice for mobile phones and other portable electronic gadgets.
There is one advantage currently associated with Li-ion batteries. Currently, a vehicle’s HV battery must be changed as a whole, even if only one cell is damaged. This is neither resource-saving nor cost-efficient. An external cell balancer, on the other hand, provides for a targeted repair of the truly faulty sections and so leads to substantially better resource and cost efficiency. An additional environmental consequence derives from the removal of hazardous goods transfers that are now incurred by the central maintenance system. If a section of the cells or a module in a lithium-ion HV battery of a vehicle is bad and needs to be replaced, the defective cell must first be located and removed [ 29 30 ]. The freshly inserted cell must first be brought to the same state of charge as the remaining intact cells of the battery. If this were not considered, the weakest cells would be destroyed, and in severe situations, this may spark a fire. A cell balancer enables the ability of conditioning individual modules in the workshop and thus mending the HV battery on site.
Li-ion batteries are the most common form of electric car battery. We may already be familiar with this battery due to its widespread use in mobile devices such as smartphones and laptop computers. Scale is the primary factor separating the two. The physical capacity and size of the traction battery pack in electric cars are significantly larger. In terms of power to weight, lithium-ion batteries are the best. These batteries are extremely efficient at storing energy. High-temperature performance is also good. The battery has a higher energy-to-weight ratio, which is critical for electric car battery performance. The longer the automobile can go on a single charge, the lighter the battery weight (for the same kWh capacity). Additionally, this battery has a low “self-discharge” level, which means that the battery is superior to any other battery in terms of its capacity to maintain its full charge. Li-ion batteries can also be recycled, making them a good option for those who care about the environment while purchasing electric vehicles. Lithium batteries are used in most BEV and PHEV vehicles [ 28 ].
Batteries for electric vehicles that are based on lithium undergo four separate stages in their lifecycles: initial raw materials, battery manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life management. After these materials have been improved by pre-processing factories, the battery manufacturing companies take over and begin manufacturing batteries and assembling them into packs. They are then sent to automobile manufacturers for use in electric vehicle integration. A lack of management could result in the waste of important materials in batteries at the end of the manufacturing process. The purpose of a successful end-of-life care phase is to bring the cycle full circle. Depending on the condition of the battery, it will either be recycled or repurposed for another purpose. To ensure that batteries are durable, companies and governments must collaborate closely to achieve this goal. By now, the raw materials phase, together with the battery manufacturing and operating phases, have all been thoroughly tested and proven. Because of economic constraints, the recycling industry has been unable to expand [ 27 ]. It is predicted that only 6% of lithium-ion batteries were collected for recycling in Australia during the 2017–2018 fiscal year. The value of wrapping up loose ends, on the other hand, cannot be stressed. Recycling electric vehicle batteries has the potential to maximize the environmental benefit for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is a forecasted shortage of nickel, cobalt, and lithium in the future. Recycling has proven to be one effective strategy.
Controlling the temperature of a system is critical. To keep up with the increasing charge rates, cooling systems must be modified on a regular basis. A device’s cooling capacity is currently limited by the amount of surface area it can utilize. Heat removal pathways are limited in the surface area because of the need to maximize battery pack density. An increase in material density means that a smaller amount of storage space may be used to increase heat removal capabilities. It is possible to attain incredibly rapid charging with existing materials using high temperatures and greater room in the pack for thermal management with more advanced technologies [ 37 38 ]. If high-temperature charging is to be more than just a one-time event, it needs to be made more durable at high temperatures.
Customers who frequently exceed the battery’s maximum capacity should be especially worried. A car can be charged to 80% SOC in less than 40 min, giving it a few hundred miles of range. At night or while at work, drivers of electric vehicles are out of luck when it comes to finding a quick charge. To reach 200 miles of range in 7.5 min with ultra-fast charging is the long-term goal of the Department of Energy. A target of 80% SOC in 15 min has been set for 2023 by the USABC. Because lithium-ion implantation in carbon has a low electrochemical potential, LIBs offer great energy density. At or around the negative electrode potential, lithium metal has the most potential. Short-circuiting and thermal runaway are just some of the possible consequences of a loss in capacity. Because of this, faster charging is not becoming more widespread [ 36 ]. As a result of these new methodologies, cell and battery charging can be sped up significantly. The thickness and porosity of electrodes can be optimized to reduce voltage polarization. Consequently, lithium intercalation is now achievable. The P/E of a cell can be altered by altering the electrode chemistry. High power can be achieved with the same active material and modifications to the electrode structure. Instead of focusing on cell and electrode engineering, scientists should focus on generating high-energy materials. Customers have the option of purchasing a vehicle with a much higher starting price, with any possibility of 600–700 Wh/L charging rates being attainable. Fast charging speeds of up to 50 kW result in a decrease in cell capacity of 1.5% to 4%, according to previous cell designs. When designing future cell designs with the same versatility as today’s cell designs, this trade-off correlation can be applied to intercalation materials combined into agglomeration coatings rather than solid-state electrolytes with metal electrodes. Furthermore, there are higher thermal management requirements for charging at a faster rate, which are not considered.
Carbon anodes are being phased out in favor of lithium-ion battery anodes, which can satisfy future energy needs but are less efficient. Lithium and silicon are the two anode materials that have drawn the most interest due to their design versatility. Technical hurdles must be solved before lithium metal may be used in automotive applications. When commercial carbon/silicon mixes were employed, silicon was a more practical advanced anode material because of its higher melting point. However, this was no longer the case. When compared to carbon, silicon has a much higher gravitational potential energy. There are practical constraints to pure silicon because of lithium loss and particle isolation owing to cycling volume changes. Even though this material only has a capacity of 2000 mAh/g compared to pure silicon, it is still suitable for industrial use. As a result, silicon is capable of withstanding changes in weight and volume over time [ 34 35 ].
As the specific energy and energy density are higher in LIB, this has encouraged the displacement of competing battery chemistries in nearly every industry and application. NiMH and NiCad can only maintain cell voltages three times higher than those found in LIBs, which are currently the most used rechargeable chemistries (NiCd). Even though the electrochemical pair involving Coand Nias a part of high energy design has remained unaltered since their origin, LIB nominal voltages have improved slightly over time (against graphite). Scientific advancements in the active material capacity and cell/electrode optimization are responsible for nearly all the gains in specific energy. This means that future efforts to electrify a wide range of vehicles will confront a significant challenge. In the future, higher specific energy batteries will require the addition of new materials. Vehicle-level goals were translated into material-level ones by the USA aims [ 31 33 ]. For the cathode and anode voltage connections, we assumed that they were conventional LIB cells. The materials chemistry sector can take comfort from the partnership of two automotive manufacturing consortia. No mature cathode materials can meet or exceed the performance parameters for future automotive materials according to the results of an examination of their performance as a cathode. For LIB cathodes, stacked lithium TMOs have become the most common cathode material since their introduction. It has been possible to enhance the capacitance of lithium cobalt oxide over time by adding dopants and coatings, and this has allowed the material to handle higher charge voltages. As a result, the price of the metal has been reduced while still maintaining a balance between energy consumption and production costs. However, structural stability and voltage fade concerns must be solved before EUCAR cathode objectives can be met with lithium-rich-layered oxide (LLO). Because future LIB cathode materials are currently unavailable, further progress is being hampered.
Depending on their availability, cost, and simplicity of removal from the battery, decisions must be made on which materials should be prioritized for removal and re-use. Since raw materials are much more expensive than recycling, governments will likely need to offer the necessary incentives. All throughout the world, the LIB sector is paying greater attention to vertical integration, which includes everything from mining and refining raw materials to producing battery cells and whole batteries and then recycling the finished products. Even though the United States has some lithium reserves, it lacks upstream capacity in mining and processing any of the essential raw materials needed to produce lithium ion. Recent Chinese efforts to vertically integrate their capacity have yielded promising results. Another 21% of the market is in the remainder of Asia, particularly South Korea and Japan. Most of the main components, including anodes, electrolytes, separators, and cathodes, are manufactured in China. A Strategic Action Plan for Batteries issued by the European Union (EU) in May 2018 includes initiatives aimed at promoting synergies between the government and industry to expand the European LIB value chain.
LIB materials can be stored in a “metal bank” to protect against supply shocks and variable costs. Stockpiling petroleum with strategic oil reserves has served as a precedent for this strategy, which tries to stabilize prices during periods of high volatility. Stockpiling of cobalt is the focus of the Canadian corporation Cobalt 27 Capital Corp [ 44 ]. Recycling spent batteries could be another way to mitigate the depletion of LIB resources and raw materials supply problems. Because so few EV LIBs have reached the end of their useful lives, research estimates that nearly 95% of LIBs are now being landfilled based on data relating to LIBs used in portable devices. There will soon be many EV LIBs that need to be disposed of or recycled. Collection, technology, and economics all play a role in recycling LIBs. Prior to being disposed of in landfills, automobile LIBs should be collected. However, LIBs can