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What is the Working Principle of Lithium Batteries?

Jun. 24, 2021

Portable electronic products use batteries as power sources. With the rapid development of portable products, the consumption of various batteries has increased greatly, and many new types of batteries have been developed. In addition to the familiar high-performance alkaline batteries, rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, and nickel-hydrogen batteries, there are also lithium batteries developed in recent years. Here we mainly introduce the basic knowledge about lithium batteries. This includes large-capacity lithium batteries such as its characteristics, main parameters, model significance, application range and precautions for use. As a Lithium Battery Wholesale, share with you.

Lithium Batteries

Lithium Batteries

Lithium is a metal element. Its chemical symbol is Li. It is a silver-white, very soft, and chemically active metal. It is the lightest among metals. In addition to its application in the nuclear energy industry, it can also manufacture special alloys, special glass (fluorescent screen glass used in TV sets) and lithium batteries. In lithium batteries it is used as the anode of the battery.

Lithium batteries are also divided into two categories: non-rechargeable and rechargeable. Non-rechargeable batteries are called disposable batteries, which can only convert chemical energy into electrical energy at one time, and cannot restore electrical energy back to chemical energy (or have extremely poor reduction performance). The rechargeable battery is called a secondary battery (also called a storage battery). It can convert electrical energy into chemical energy for storage, and then convert chemical energy into electrical energy when it is used. It is reversible, such as the main feature of electrical energy chemical energy lithium batteries.

The cathode material of lithium-ion batteries is usually composed of lithium active compounds, while the anode is carbon with a special molecular structure. The main component of common positive electrode material is LiCoO2. When charging, the electric potential applied to the two poles of the battery forces the compound of the positive electrode to release lithium ions, which are embedded in the carbon in which the molecules of the negative electrode are arranged in a sheet structure. During discharge, lithium ions are precipitated from the carbon of the lamellar structure and recombine with the compound of the positive electrode. The movement of lithium ions produces a current high-capacity lithium battery.

Although the chemical reaction principle is very simple, in actual industrial production, there are many practical issues that need to be considered: the material of the positive electrode needs additives to maintain the activity of multiple charging and discharging, and the material of the negative electrode needs to be designed at the molecular structure level. To accommodate more lithium ions; the electrolyte filled between the positive and negative electrodes, in addition to maintaining stability, also needs to have good conductivity to reduce the internal resistance of the battery.

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